Entomological and zoonotic operational risk assessments (EZORAs) are prepared jointly by the PHC Entomological Sciences Program and the Veterinary Services Portfolio to assist public health and military medical planners with pre-deployment planning and deployments to a country of concern. These documents are prepared based on guidance from the DoD Entomological Operational Risk Assessment (EORA), Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) Technical Guide 46 (TG 46) . The scope of an EZORA is broader than an EORA. In addition to vector-borne disease risk, an EZORA also covers zoonotic risks such as animal-contact (rabies, Q fever, anthrax), water-contact and water-borne (schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, brucellosis), aerosolized dust or soil-contact (hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Lassa fever), and other contagious diseases that can potentially spread between animals and humans during deployments abroad. The National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI) Infectious Disease Risk Assessment (IDRA) is the primary source of information used for preparation of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in EZORAs. Other sources such as the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , the AFPMB , Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (WRBU) , World Health Organization (WHO) , and other published scientific literature are also utilized for assembling these assessments. Based on users' requests, we have completed a number of EZORAs that eventually will be posted on Army Knowledge Online (AKO). You can contact USAPHC Entomological Sciences Program to find out if an EZORA is already on hand for the country of interest. Otherwise, we can prepare one for you within a reasonable time frame.
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