The DoD 8-step model, based on the AIHA Exposure Assessment Model, provides the structure for the DOEHRS-IH application. Following the steps of the model helps the IH execute a solid Exposure Assessment Strategy, central to an effective industrial hygiene (IH) program. Data collected and documented through each of the steps are used to establish longitudinal exposures records for military and civilians.
The steps of the DoD IH Exposure Assessment Model include:
1. Define Scope and Support of Resources
Make a list of customers, both internal and external.
Meet with organization commanders to identify mission requirements.
Capture organization demographics.
Program and budget for required IH manpower, equipment, and supplies.
Schedule visits to exposure locations for exposure assessments.
2. Basic Characterization
Basic characterization is where information is gathered to characterize the workplace, the worker force, and the environmental agents. The basic characterization step is the foundation for exposure assessment.
The exposure assessment strategy (EAS) program relies on the basic characterization.
These basic questions are asked:
1. What are the chemical, physical, and biological agents in the workplace?
2. What are the health effects associated with overexposure to these agents?
3. What are the occupational exposure limits?
4. What are the sources of exposure?
5. What controls are in place?
6. How are the workers organized?
7. What are their job duties?
3. Similar Exposure Group
The SEG is a group of employees having the same general exposure profile for agent(s) being studied because of the similarity and frequency of the tasks they perform, the materials and processes with which they work, and the similarity in the way they perform the tasks.
By effectively using well-constructed and defined SEGs, the exposure data can be maximized while minimizing the resources used to get the data.
4. Develop Worksite Monitoring Plan
Worksite monitoring plans are used to plan and prioritize those SEGs where data need to be collected.
The objectives of a worksite monitoring plan are:
Monitor performance of the exposure controls
Collect exposure data to monitor effectiveness of controls on exposure
Collect additional data to improve accuracy of exposure estimate
Comply with periodic monitoring required by regulatory agencies
5. Characterize Exposures
Information is captured on frequency and duration of worker exposures and the effectiveness of controls in place during the “characterize exposures” step.
An exposure estimate for workers within a SEG is developed based on:
After sampling is conducted and all relevant data is collected, samples are submitted for analysis and assessing exposures can begin.
6. Assess Exposures
During the assessing exposures step, data is collected and compared to an occupational exposure standard.
Determination is then made on whether exposure is acceptable, unacceptable, or more data needs to be collected.
The determination for how to perform the assessment should be made before a single piece of data is collected.
The assessment criteria should include what occupational exposure standards are used and what is considered to be an acceptable exposure.
Assessing exposures also includes what statistic test(s) will be used and how they will be interpreted.
Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs)
Select the OEL in accordance with DoD component policy.
If an OEL is not available, seek guidance from technical support offices or use professional judgment based on data collected and document the rationale for the OEL.
Compile all data for the SEG for all exposure routes (e.g., inhalation, skin contact, ingestion).
Interpret the data using statistical tools to assist in making an appropriate judgment of the exposure risk to the workers.
Provide Control Plan
The best control strategy is based on exposure assessment.
A control strategy can be based on an unacceptable exposure identified through an exposure assessment strategy, or can be a proactive plan to ensure the exposure never reaches the point where it creates a hazard.
Effectiveness of controls can be evaluated for worker exposure for each potential route of exposure (e.g., breathing zone levels with local ventilation operating, noise attenuation of hearing protection, chemical permeation of gloves).
7. Reporting and Recording
Reporting and recording are essential elements of the EAS to ensure effective communication of findings and the successful continuation of the IH program.
Provide full report and briefing to workplace supervisors and other pertinent personnel with findings and conclusions prioritizing options and recommendations.
Some elements include:
Compiled information on each SEG
Conditions in violation of OSHA or DoD Component standard
Existing controls and their effectiveness
Future actions to be taken by IH staff
Record exposures, conditions, and recommendations to be tracked by IH staff.
Identify exposures and medical surveillance recommendations for each SEG to the supervisor and to Occupational Medicine.
Repeat the exposure assessment process with the goal of improving previous assessments and continuing to reduce risk to workers.
Locations should be evaluated at least annually where:
Personal exposure to toxic chemicals, harmful physical agents, or biological hazards require medical surveillance
Personal exposure to toxic chemicals, harmful physical agents, or biological hazards are controlled by engineering, work practices, or PPE
Mandated by Federal or DoD regulations
Exposures by ingestion or through skin absorption are significant