Army Public Health Weekly Update, 13 August 2021

Date Published: 8/13/2021
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​The Army Public Health Update is a collection of articles taken from public sources to offer awareness of current health issues and the media coverage given to them. The articles do not necessarily represent U.S. Army Medical Command opinions, views, policy, or guidance, and should not be construed or interpreted as being endorsed by the U.S. Army Medical Command.

The Army Public Health Weekly Update does not analyze the information as to its strategic or tactical impact on the U.S. Army and is not a medical intelligence product. Medical intelligence is available from the National Center for Medical Intelligence External Link .

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Table of Contents


    2020 Health of the Force Report

    Through annual reporting of key indicators that impact readiness and Soldier well-being, Health of the Force improves awareness and understanding of the health status of the Army. Results are communicated through an online digital platform and traditional reports. The Health of the Force suite of products gives leaders tools to advance programs and strategies that improve performance and reduce illness and injury. APHC


    Service leaders have a month come up with a plan to vaccinate all troops against COVID-19

    10 August- Stand by to stand by. The Defense Department has signaled its intention to make COVID-19 vaccines mandatory for all service members, whether the Federal Drug Administration has fully approved them or not. But no actions have been taken or deadlines yet set. In his memo to the force delivered Monday, Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin said he will, by mid-September, ask President Joe Biden ― who must grant a waiver in lieu of FDA approval ― for permission to add COVID-19 to the list of mandated inoculations. But there are few details available beyond that. Austin is giving the service secretaries some time to come up with a roll-out plan, Pentagon spokesman John Kirby said, that could include not only strategy for vaccinating troops who are traveling or otherwise out of pocket, but parameters for exemptions and repercussions for those who continue to refuse to get vaccinated. "Some of them were already working on the potential ― because all of us had a sense that this was coming," Kirby told Military Times. "But he did not give them an actual deadline. He does not expect that it's going to take very long for them to come back with implementation plans." And in the wake of Biden's late July announcement that unvaccinated federal employees would be subject to regular COVID-19 testing, DoD is also working on interim guidance for service members in the final weeks of voluntary vaccinations, as well as long-term policy for civilians and contractors. The services already have infrastructure to track vaccinations among troops and enforce mandates, including the power to involuntary discharge troops who refuse a vaccine. While Austin has given himself mid-September as a deadline, it's possible that the Pfizer vaccine will be approved by the end of August, and in that case, DoD will put it on the mandatory list immediately, according to Kirby. Military Times External Link

    Since Gulf War, advanced prosthetic technology saves lives, careers

    9 August- This is the third in a series of articles on advances in military health care and technology since the Persian Gulf War, 30 years ago this year. See part 1,  See part 2. Since the first Gulf War ended in early 1991, military medicine and battlefield care has made enormous strides. Many of those strides are being taken by warfighters who have lost a leg, or the use of multiple extremities, in Iraq or Afghanistan, and have learned to walk once again with the use of modern-day prosthetic limbs. "Blast-related polytrauma was the signature injury that we were taking care of, and continue to," said Dr. Paul Pasquina, a retired Army colonel who is now professor and chair of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) in Bethesda, Maryland. "When you look at the folks with limb loss that we've taken care of since 9/11, a high percentage have lost more than one limb," he said. "About 40 to 60% also sustained a brain injury. Because of some of the lessons learned and the innovations that have taken place on the battlefield, whether they be in acute resuscitative care, or tourniquets, or rapid med-evac, we were taking care of service members who in previous conflicts would have died." Advances in artificial limb technology would be moot without these developments made in combat care between the Gulf War and the post-9/11 conflicts, experts say. Getting critically injured service members off the battlefield and home alive in a timely and efficient manner spurred technical and career-related innovations. "There's not a 'golden hour' in military medicine — there's a platinum 10 minutes," said Dale Smith, an author and professor of military medicine and history at USU. Speed and efficiency of care save lives, he explained, and after the Gulf War, "Forward care and accelerating movement of the wounded were advanced, and the tactical combat casualty care system grew. New synthetics would be developed." "We would see casualties sometimes within 36 hours of severe injury on the battlefield in our ICUs," said Pasquina. His service as a deployed doctor bridged the first Gulf War and post-9/11 operations. He retired as chief of orthopedics and rehab at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, where he now works in a similar role as a civilian. After that came the process of healing, often with the aid of synthetics, including many of the increasingly sophisticated prosthetic devices created since the start of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Ground troops who before operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom would not have necessarily survived were instead alive, at home and facing life without a limb. The first step is saving lives, Pasquina said. "But the next step is restoring lives, and providing some meaning to those lives. It's been incredibly humbling to see how resilient most of our service members and families are in their ability to often thrive after catastrophic injuries." External Link


    CDC committee debates COVID-19 vaccinations for immunocompromised individuals & boosters

    9 August- The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced a virtual COVID-19 vaccine committee meeting on August 13, 2021, at 11 a.m. ET. No registration is required, and this is the webcast link. As of August 9, 2021, the meeting's agenda focuses on additional COVID-19 vaccine doses for immunocompromised individuals, COVID-19 epidemiology, and vaccine impact considerations for booster doses COVID-19 vaccines. Presentations for this new Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) meeting, and previous meetings, can be found on this CDC webpage. The ACIP holds meetings at the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia, to review scientific data and vote on vaccine recommendations. The ACIP is currently chaired by José R. Romero, M.D., FAAP, FIDSA, FPIDS, FAAAS, and includes 15 voting members responsible for making vaccine recommendations. In addition to the voting members, the ACIP includes 8 ex officio members who represent other federal agencies with responsibility for immunization programs in the United States and 30 non-voting representatives of liaison organizations that bring related immunization expertise. The ACIP Committee's recommendations are forwarded to CDC's 19th Director, Rochelle P. Walensky, M.D., MPH, for approval. Precision Vaccinations External Link

    COVID-19 cases in children surge 84% in 1 week, study finds

    6 August- COVID-19 cases in children are up 84% in the past week, with 72,000 kids testing positive for the virus, a new study from the American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP] reported on Wednesday. The new infections were recorded in the seven days leading up to July 29, up from 39,000 the week prior, according to the AAP report. AAP said it had teamed up with Children's Hospitals of America to help collect and share data about pediatric cases of the virus, which have been only 14.3% of the total cumulative cases, the study says. That share rose to 19% for the week ending July 29. Since the pandemic began, 4.2 million children have tested positive for the virus. "That's high and considering the fact that we are vaccinated now, what that's telling us is that unvaccinated people are getting infected in higher numbers because the virus is more infectious with the Delta variant," Dr. Yvonne Maldonado, chief of the division of infectious diseases in the Department of Pediatrics at Stanford Medicine and chair of the AAP committee on infectious diseases, told CNN. "Our sense is because kids can't get vaccinated, parents should clearly be vaccinated themselves, and if their kids are 12 and older they should be vaccinated as well," Maldonado said. The statistics are particularly concerning with millions of children set to return to classrooms across the country over the next month. In Florida, Gov. Ron DeSantis has made it illegal for school boards to mandate mask requirements in schools, even as cases surge in his state. Meanwhile, the Arkansas Gov. Asa Hutchinson said on Wednesday he regrets passing a similar mask ban in his state as cases swell there. The governor now wants to amend the law to give schools the option to adopt their own mask requirements. Fox News External Link

    COVID-19 or RSV? Symptoms to watch for

    6 August- An unusual summertime uptick in respiratory syncytial viral infections, or RSV, coinciding with increasing spread of the delta variant may create difficulty in differentiating between the two. The respiratory viruses share several common symptoms, and reports of both RSV and COVID-19 cases are on the rise; RSV had an approximate 3% positivity rate in June before rising to 13% by mid-July, according to the latest federal figures, which may represent an undercount due to lags in reporting. Meanwhile, the U.S. just logged 103,455 new daily COVID-19 infections with a seven-day average of about 89,463 cases per day, translating to a 43% increase over the prior seven-day average, according to Dr. Rochelle Walensky, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). SARS-CoV-2, or the virus causing COVID-19 disease, is a respiratory virus associated with a range of symptoms, and it takes a couple of weeks for an infected individual to fully recover. Although most people do recover from COVID-19, some who were infected experience lingering symptoms, or so-called long COVID, while others (like people who are elderly, overweight or with previous underlying health conditions) may suffer a severe course of disease. Fox News External Link

    Dementia diagnosis in a single brain scan? Scientists test AI that detect, predict illness

    10 August- Dementia diagnosis currently takes several scans and tests, which occur in multiple weeks or even months. But a group of scientists is working to change that by detecting the illness in a single brain scan via AI or artificial intelligence tech. Dementia diagnosis in a single brain scan could be possible as scientists are testing an AI or artificial intelligence that detect and predict the condition. Not just that, the AI tool also predicts the severity of the dementia condition by showing if it needs immediate treatment, or if it will remain stable in the years to come. It is also worth noting that the pre-clinical tests of the AI tool diagnose dementia even before symptoms start to exhibit. As per Alzheimer's Association, Dementia is the general term for multiple thinking difficulties, such as memory loss, language problems, and problem-solving struggles. Also, the said condition is commonly due to Alzheimer's disease. Meanwhile, WHO noted a good diet paired with proper exercise lowers the risk of dementia. Tech Times External Link

    Depression and anxiety doubled in children, pandemic study says

    9 August- Around the world, children's depression and anxiety rates may have doubled since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to the results of a meta-literature review published in JAMA Pediatrics today. The researchers looked at 29 general-population studies, one of which was not peer reviewed, and found pooled depression and anxiety rates at 25.2% and 20.5%, respectively. Both depression and anxiety rates were associated with later stages in the pandemic and with girls, and higher depression was also associated with older children.  "We are experiencing a global public health crisis in youth mental health that began long before the pandemic, and we must advocate for implementation of evidence-supported practices that are scalable, expands access to care, and eliminates disparities worldwide," write Tami D. Benton, MD, and others in a related commentary. CIDRAP External Link

    FDA approval of the Covid-19 vaccine could mean more people will get vaccinated for an unexpected reason

    10 August- Pfizer's Covid-19 vaccine is currently only authorized for emergency use in the United States, but its full approval by the US Food and Drug Administration could happen within weeks. The ramifications could alter the course of the pandemic in several ways. First, full approval of a Covid-19 vaccine could persuade more people to get vaccinated. More than 30% of the eligible population in the United States still hasn't gotten a vaccine. To qualify for emergency use authorization, Covid-19 vaccine makers submitted about three months of clinical trial data. This included at least 2 months of safety data on fully vaccinated participants, since most vaccine side effects occur 2-3 months after the vaccination. For some Americans, that hasn't been enough data to convince them to get the shot. Full approval of a Covid-19 vaccine requires much more data, including safety and efficacy data generated in the real-world, outside of a clinical trial. The CDC has been tracking real-world data on the vaccines and more than 165 million people in the US are now vaccinated against the virus. The extra data may help convince more people that the vaccines are not dangerous. "For some, getting a full FDA approval will help allay that fear. Even if it's just a relatively small number of people. Every little bit helps against this virus," Dr. David Dowdy, an associate professor in the division of infectious disease epidemiology at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, said. Three in ten unvaccinated adults said they would be more likely to get vaccinated if one of the vaccines moves to full approval, according to a survey from the Kaiser Family Foundation. CNN External Link

    Long-lasting Covid-19 symptoms rare in children

    4 August- Children who become ill with coronavirus rarely experience long-term symptoms, with most recovering in less than a week, research suggests. King's College London scientists say that while a small group may experience prolonged illness, they were "reassured" that number was low. Headaches and tiredness were the most common symptoms seen. A Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health expert said the data reflected what doctors saw in clinics. Compared to adults, children are far less at risk of coronavirus. Many who are infected do not develop symptoms and those that do, tend to have a mild illness. This peer-reviewed study, published in the Lancet Child and Adolescent Health journal, wanted to understand how Covid affected children and how it compared to other respiratory diseases. It used data provided by parents or careers to the UK Zoe Covid Study app. The study looked at 1,734 children, aged between five and 17, who were reported to have developed symptoms and tested positive for Covid between September 2020 and February 2021. The researchers say it's very difficult to know how many children were infected during this time period as the four UK nations record data differently, but they estimate more than 400,000 children and young people tested positive. BBC External Link

    Pediatricians advocate for accelerating COVID-19 vaccinations for children

    9 August- The president of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a letter on August 5, 2021, urging the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to continue working aggressively towards authorizing safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines for children under age 12 as soon as possible. 'Based on the evidence from the over 340 million doses of COVID-19 doses administered to adults 18 and older and adolescents aged 12-17, there is no biological plausibility for serious adverse immunological or inflammatory events to occur more than two months after COVID-19 vaccine administration,' wrote Dr. Lee Ann Savio Beers. Furthermore, Dr. Beers stated 'While there is justifiable concern about reported cases of myocarditis in younger adults and adolescents receiving an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, these events are extremely rare, and, if they were to occur, they would most likely happen within four weeks of receiving the vaccine.' 'In even rarer cases, this might present at six weeks, but not longer.' Precision Vaccinations External Link


    CDC: Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report

    2020-2021 Influenza Season for Week 30, ending July 31, 2021:

    Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations- The Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) conducts population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations in select counties in 14 states and represents approximately 9% of the U.S. population. As in previous seasons, patients admitted for laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalization after April 30, 2021, will not be included in FluSurv-NET. Data on patients admitted through April 30, 2021, will continue to be updated as additional information is received.

    Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality- No influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported to CDC during week 30. CDC External Link


    Alaskan authorities report dozens sick in outbreak among hospital employees

    10 August- Alaska Health and Social Services announced via Facebook that there is an outbreak of foodborne illnesses affecting dozens of workers at a hospital in Alaska. More than 70 employees working at South Peninsula Hospital in Homer, AK, have been identified with gastrointestinal illness to date. All ill people consumed food that had been brought into the hospital for employee meals from several local food establishments. No patients or hospital residents consumed the food. At this time, the source of the outbreak is unknown. The outbreak is being investigated by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Service's Section of Epidemiology in coordination with the Alaska Department of Conservation (DEC) Food Safety & Sanitation Program. If anyone is experiencing foodborne illness symptoms, specifically gastrointestinal illness, and has been in the Homer area in the past week, they are encouraged to fill out a DHSS foodborne illness survey via this link: Please complete only one survey per person. This is an anonymous survey, your answers will only be used for public health purposes. Your participation is voluntary. The survey should take approximately 15 minutes. Please contact your health care provider if you have questions or concerns. Foodborne illness symptoms involved in this outbreak so far have primarily been diarrhea and stomach cramps, which have resolved quickly. Fever is not one of the main symptoms reported. Most people experiencing symptoms reported that they began to feel ill Saturday evening, Aug. 7, through Sunday morning. Food Safety News External Link

    Consumer complaints of glove pieces in Panera soup prompt recall

    6 August- Blount Fine Foods of McKinney, TX, is recalling 6,384 pounds of Panera Bread at Home Chicken Tortilla Soup that may be contaminated with extraneous material, specifically pieces of gray nitrile gloves. The problem was discovered after the company notified the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) that they received several consumer complaints reporting pieces of gray nitrile glove in the product. These items were shipped to retail locations in Arizona, Florida, Georgia and Texas. The fully cooked, ready to eat, chicken tortilla soup was produced on July 1. 

    The following product is subject to recall:

    - 16-oz. – Plastic containers of "Panera BREAD at HOME Chicken Tortilla Soup" with lot code 070121-1V and "Use By 09/09/2021" on the label.  

    The recalled products bear establishment number "P-13130" inside the USDA mark of inspection. These items were shipped to retail locations in Arizona, Florida, Georgia and Texas. As of the posting of this recall, there have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions due to the consumption of these products. Anyone concerned about an injury or illness should contact a healthcare provider.  FSIS is concerned that some product may be in consumers' refrigerators.  Consumers who have purchased these products are urged not to consume them. These products should be thrown away or returned to the place of purchase. Food Safety News External Link 


    First-aid and CPR/AED classes: What to look for

    9 August- Tarla Atwell was overseeing her family's hair-care manufacturing company when a maintenance worker severed his finger. "I didn't know what to do, so I put him in my car and just drove to an urgent care clinic," she says. Although the incident was in 2015, Atwell, an attorney in Jefferson, Ga., vividly remembers her overwhelming sense of panic. "Maybe with training I could have stopped the bleeding." Now, after recently completing the American Heart Association's Heartsaver First Aid CPR AED course, she feels more confident in her ability to render aid until help arrives. Atwell says the impetus to finally enroll in a course came from her desire to help her loved ones. "Many members of my family, including my grandmother, are in their 90s. What better way to help them than with this knowledge?" More often than not, those who take a basic lifesaving class use those skills on friends or family rather than a stranger, says Janet Schulte, the certification coordinator teaching lifesaving techniques to students, faculty and staff at Lindenwood University in St. Charles, Mo. For me, the motivation to become recertified was the never-ending trauma I've seen on the news over the past few years — from floods, fires, heat waves, condo collapses, shootings, riots and more — and the sense that our first responders must be stretched thin. I don't think I'm alone. During the organization's 2020 fiscal year, which included several pandemic months, more than 2.1 million people enrolled in the American Red Cross's first aid, CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED) courses, which was less of a drop than expected from the previous, non-pandemic year. Another reason to take a course: It can make a real difference. According to the American Heart Association, about 90 percent of people who suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrests die. CPR, especially if performed immediately, can double or triple a cardiac arrest victim's chance of survival. About 57 percent of victims who receive a shock from an AED administered by a bystander before emergency help arrives are more likely to survive. Still, not enough of us know what to do. The Washington Post External Link


    Democratic Republic of the Congo: 7 days in jail for not wearing a mask in Lubumbashi

    8 August- In the capital and principal city of the Haut-Katanga Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Lubumbashi mayor, Ghislain Robert Lubaba Buluma signed a decree Saturday making wearing a mask compulsory and a potential the offender will spend 7 days in prison and be charged a fine of 15,000 Congolese Francs (7.5 USD). "Given the need and the urgency, stop: the correct wearing of a mask is made compulsory in public or private environments involving the presence of the public throughout the city of Lubumbashi; access to downtown Lubumbashi is now conditioned by wearing a mask: Check-points will be put in place to enforce this measure from Monday, August 9, 2021; the offender will be imposed 7 days of imprisonment and a fine of 15,000 FC ", according to the decision. In addition, according to the urban authority, nightclubs, bars, festive and cultural ceremonies remain closed. Lubaba Buluma calls on pastors to strengthen barrier measures in their churches and instructed the Congolese police and army to disperse the crowds of more than 20 people. Provincial Minister of Health, Doctor Joseph Nsambi Bulanda had affirmed "that today, almost 50% of patients in hospitals in Lubumbashi are of Covid-19 patients ". The latest epidemiological bulletin from the multisectoral response committee places the province of Haut-Katanga in 3rd position in the DRC with 3,478 cases and around 50 deaths. Outbreak News Today External Link


    Saudi Arabia reports 2nd MERS case in a week from Riyadh

    2 August- The Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health reported an additional Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) case from Riyadh, the second case in a week. The patient is a 65-year-old man who had contact with camels. This is the eleventh MERS case of 2021 in the Kingdom and the 12th overall (one in the United Arab Emirates). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a virus transferred to humans from infected dromedary camels, according to the World Health Organization. It is a zoonotic virus, meaning it is transmitted between animals and people, and it is contractible through direct or indirect contact with infected animals. MERS-CoV has been identified in dromedaries in several countries in the Middle East, Africa and South Asia. In total, 27 countries have reported more than 2,500 cases since 2012, leading to nearly 900 known deaths due to the infection and related complications. Outbreak News Today External Link


    Human anthrax case reported in Karabudakhkent region, Russia

    10 August- The Dagestan Ministry of Health reported a resident of the village of Kakashura, Karabudakhkent region, was hospitalized with suspicion of being infected with anthrax. A 52-year-old man became a patient of the infectious diseases department of the district hospital in the village of Gurbuki. He was diagnosed with a cutaneous form of the disease. The man was engaged in the slaughter and butchering of cattle meat. The patient's condition is assessed as moderate. He is provided with all the necessary medical assistance. In addition, doctors monitor the condition of persons in contact with the patient. The work of an interdepartmental commission has been launched in the village, veterinary measures are being carried out, and samples are being taken. Rospotrebnadzor specialists are taking measures to establish the source and factor of transmission of infection, to find out the circle of people at risk of infection. Note that human infection with anthrax occurs due to the penetration of the pathogen through damaged skin or mucous membranes when caring for sick animals, when processing carcasses, removing the skin and burying the corpses of dead animals, when in contact with various types of raw materials obtained from sick animals, when eaten meat of sick animals, as well as through the bites of blood-sucking insects. Outbreak News Today External Link

    Portugal COVID-19 update: Officials report decrease in hospital admissions

    8 August- In Portugal Saturday, the daily epidemiological bulletin of the Directorate-General of Health reports that there are 2621 new cases of COVID-19, including 17 deaths, 838 hospital admissions, of which 186 in intensive care units. Health officials note that hospital admissions are down- 28 less than the day before as is ICU admissions– six less than the day before. This Saturday, the incidence nationwide is 362.7 cases of infection per 100,000 population and on the continent is 369.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The R(t), the transmissibility index, remains at 0.92 nationally and on the continent. The Lisbon and Vale do Tejo region is once again ahead in the number of positive infections, with 1075 cases of the total in the last 24 hours, followed by the Northern regions with 878 cases, the Center with 216, the Algarve with 215 and Alentejo with 127. Madeira registered 37 cases and the Azores registered 73 cases. Deaths were registered in Lisbon and Vale do Tejo (9), in the North (4), in the Alentejo (2), in the Algarve (1) and in the Center (1). Outbreak News Today External Link


    Bird flu cases confirmed by China

    9 August- The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health announced on August 6, 2021, it is closely monitoring two human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6) on the China Mainland. From 2014 to date, Mainland health authorities have reported 37 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6). "All novel influenza A infections, including H5N6, are notifiable infectious diseases in Hong Kong," a spokesman for the CHP stated in a news release. The first case involves a 61-year-old woman living in Guilin in Guangxi who had prior exposure to a live poultry market before the onset of symptoms. She is in stable condition. And the second case involves a 65-year-old woman living in Yibin City in Sichuan Province, who is in critical condition. While local surveillance, prevention, and control measures are in place, the CHP will remain vigilant and work closely with the World Health Organization (WHO) and relevant health authorities to monitor the latest developments. People can be infected with various influenza viruses circulating in animals, such as avian influenza (Bird Flu) virus subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H9N2) and swine influenza virus subtypes A(H1N1) and (H3N2), says the WHO. However, travelers to the Mainland or other affected areas must avoid visiting wet markets, live poultry markets, or farms. And they should be alert to the presence of backyard poultry when visiting relatives and friends. They should also avoid purchasing live or freshly slaughtered poultry and avoid touching poultry/birds or their droppings. They should strictly observe personal and hand hygiene when visiting any place with live poultry. Moreover, travelers returning from affected areas should consult a doctor promptly if influenza-like symptoms develop. This will enable the doctor to assess the possibility of avian influenza and arrange necessary investigations and appropriate treatment in a timely manner, says the CHP. Precision Vaccinations External Link

    China: Human anthrax case reported in Beijing

    9 August- The Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Beijing CDC) reported Monday a human inhalation anthrax case in a patient from Chengde in North China's Hebei Province. The patient was transported to Beijing via ambulance four days after showing symptoms and was later quarantined and treated. The patient had a history of contact with cattle and sheep, and associated products from those animals. Anthrax is a bacterial pathogen in livestock and wild animals. Ruminants such as bison, cattle, sheep and goats are highly susceptible, and horses can also be infected. Anthrax is a very serious disease of livestock because it can potentially cause the rapid loss of a large number of animals in a very short time. Affected animals are often found dead with no illness detected. Outbreak News Today External Link 


    U.S.: Melioidosis fatality reported in Georgia

    10 August- In a follow-up on the several non-travel associated melioidosis cases in the United States, the Georgia Department of Public Health, with assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is investigating a fatal case of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (i.e., melioidosis) identified in late July 2021. Based on genomic analysis, this case in Georgia closely matches the three cases previously identified in Kansas, Minnesota, and Texas in 2021, indicating they all most likely share a common source of exposure. The most recent case died in the hospital and was identified post-mortem in late July 2021 in Georgia. This was preceded by the first case, which was fatal, was identified in March 2021 in Kansas. The second and third cases, both identified in May 2021 in Minnesota and Texas, were hospitalized for extended periods of time before being discharged to transitional care facilities. The four cases include both children and adults. Two cases are female, and two cases are male. None of the cases had a history of traveling outside of the continental United States. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is a Tier 1 select agent that can infect animals and humans. Cases are most common in areas of the world with tropical and sub-tropical climates. Most cases in the United States occur in persons returning from a country where the disease is endemic. These four cases are unusual because no recent travel outside the United States has been identified. Outbreak News Today External Link


    Measles: Local case reported in Ceará, first time in over a year

    8 August- The State Department of Health (Sesa) in Ceará state in northeastern Brazil has confirmed the first measles case in 16 months. The case, a 3-year-old child, was reported in July in the municipality of Massapê, about 244 km from Fortaleza. Health officials also note that the child had no history of travel or contact with a traveler. The vaccination status of the child was not noted; however, the State recommends the early vaccination of babies aged 6 to 11 months, to protect them from an eventual outbreak of the virus. In June, Sesa had suspended the application of the so-called "zero dose" of the triple viral in babies under 1 year, a measure that was emergency and temporary. According to the National Vaccination Calendar, the triple is only applied at 12 months (D1) and at 15 months of life (D2). Pediatrician Vanuza Chagas had already warned that "children are the most susceptible to complications and sequelae of measles" and that, therefore, it is necessary to keep the vaccination schedule complete and updated. Outbreak News Today External Link