This icon identifies links to external web sites that will open in a new browser window. See the
External Links Disclaimer link at the bottom of this page.
Some linked files require specific plug-ins to open. To download plug-ins, see the
File Formats Used on This Site link at the bottom of this page.
Status as a Public Health Issue
- CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) conducted an assessment of antibiotic resistance threats, categorizing the threat level of bacteria as urgent, serious, or concerning, based on 7 factors (clinical impact, economic impact, incidence, 10-year projection of incidence, transmissibility, availability of effective antibiotics, and barriers to prevention), published in 2013.
- CDC's assessment is that MRSA is considered a serious threat because the number of serious infections is decreasing and there are multiple effective antibiotics for treating infections; however, MRSA infections can be very serious, and the number of infections are still among the highest of antibiotic-resistant threats. If MRSA infection rates increase or MRSA strains become more resistant to other antibiotics, then MRSA may change from a serious to an urgent threat. These assessments are updated at least every 5 years.
- Between 2005 and 2011 overall rates of invasive MRSA dropped 31%; the largest declines (54%) were observed among infections occurring during hospitalization. Success began with preventing central-line associated bloodstream infections with MRSA, where rates fell nearly 50% from 1997 to 2007.
- During the past decade, rates of MRSA infections have increased rapidly among the general population (people who have not recently received care in a healthcare setting). There is some evidence that these increases are slowing, but they are not following the same downward trends as healthcare-associated MRSA.
Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States
Infection Control in the Military
Information and Advice about MRSA for School and Daycare Officials (2013).
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections Among Tattoo Recipients --- Ohio, Kentucky, and Vermont, 2004-2005 (June 2006)
MMWR 2006;55:677--679, June 23, 2006
A clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among professional football players.
Kazakova SV et al. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 3;352(5):468-75.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in correctional facilities --- Georgia, California, and Texas, 2001--2003 (October 2003)
MMWR 2003;52:992--6, 17 October 2003
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections among competitive sports participants --- Colorado, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Los Angeles County, 2000--2003 (August 2003)
MMWR 2003;52:793--5, 22 August 2003
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin or soft tissue infections in a state prison--Mississippi, 2000.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001 Oct 26;50(42):919-22.
Journal Articles - MRSA and the Military (newest first by publish date)
Hygiene strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections: a cluster-randomized controlled trial among high-risk military trainees.
Ellis MW, Schlett CD, Millar EV, Wilkins KJ, Crawford KB, Morrison-Rodriguez SM, Pacha LA, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jun;58(11):1540-8. Epub 2014 Mar 14.
Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection prevention strategies at a military training center.
Morrison SM, Blaesing CR, Millar EV, Chukwuma U, Schlett CD, Wilkins KJ, Tribble DR, Ellis MW. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;34(8):841-3. Epub 2013 Jun 27.
Update: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection surveillance among active duty military personnel at Fort Benning GA, 2008-2010.
Leamer NK, Clemmons NS, Jordan NN, Pacha LA. Mil Med. 2013 Aug;178(8):914-20.
Chlorhexidine gluconate reduces transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 among Marine recruits.
Whitman TJ, Schlett CD, Grandits GA, Millar EV, Mende K, Hospenthal DR, Murray PR, Tribble DR. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012 Aug;33(8):809-16. Epub 2012 Jun 11.
Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus blood and skin and soft tissue infections in the US military health system, 2005-2010.
Landrum ML, Neumann C, Cook C, Chukwuma U, Ellis MW, Hospenthal DR, Murray CK. JAMA. 2012 Jul 4;308(1):50-9.
Antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS network.
Meyer WG, Pavlin JA, Hospenthal D, Murray CK, Jerke K, Hawksworth A, Metzgar D, Myers T, et al. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11(Suppl 2): S8.
Chlorhexidine-impregnated cloths to prevent skin and soft-tissue infection in Marine recruits: a cluster-randomized, double-blind, controlled effectiveness trial.
Whitman TJ, Herlihy RK, Schlett CD, Murray PR, Grandits GA, Ganesan A, Brown M et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Dec;31(12):1207-15. Epub 2010 Oct 28.
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections at an Army training installation.
Morrison-Rodriguez SM, Pacha LA, Patrick JE, Jordan NN. Epidemiol Infect. 2010 May;138(5):721-9.Epub 2010 Jan 25.
Alcohol-based instant hand sanitizer use in military settings: a prospective cohort study of Army basic trainees.
Mott PJ, Sisk BW, Arbogast JW, Ferrazzano-Yaussy C, Bondi CA, Sheehan JJ. Mil Med. 2007 Nov;172(11):1170-6.
Targeted intranasal mupirocin to prevent colonization and infection by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in soldiers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Ellis MW, Griffith ME, Dooley DP, McLean JC, Jorgensen JH, Patterson JE, Davis KA et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Oct;51(10):3591-8. Epub 2007 Aug 6.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among US prisoners and military personnel: review and recommendations for future studies.
Aiello AE, Lowy FD, Wright LN, Larson EL. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):335-41.
Emerging Infections with Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Outpatients at an Army Community Hospital.
Beilman GJ, Sandifer G, Skarda D, Jensen B, McAllister S, Killgore G, Srinivasan A. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2005 Spring;6(1):87-92.
Natural History of Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Infection in Soldiers.
Ellis MW, Hospenthal DR, Dooley DP, Gray PJ, Murray CK. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 1;39(7):971-9. Epub 2004 Sep 2.
Risk factors for Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in an Outbreak of Disease among Military Trainees in San Diego, California, in 2002. Campbell KM, Vaughn AF, Russell KL, Smith B, Jimenez DL, Barrozo CP, Minarcik JR, Crum NF, Ryan MA. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Sep;42(9):4050-3.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Nares Colonization at Hospital Admission and Its Effect on Subsequent MRSA Infection.
Davis KA, Stewart JJ, Crouch HK, Florez CE, Hospenthal DR. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 15;39(6):776-82. Epub 2004 Aug 27.
Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Military Recruits.
Zinderman CE, Conner B, Malakooti MA, LaMar JE, Armstrong MA, Bohnker BK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 May;10(5):941-4.
Nosocomial Transmission of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Blinded Study to Establish Baseline Acquisition Rates.
Fishbain JT, Lee JC, Nguyen HD, Mikita JA, Mikita CP, Uyehara CF, Hospenthal DR. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;24(6):415-21.
Rates of Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in an Outpatient Population.
Kenner J, O'Connor T, Piantanida N, Fishbain J, Eberly B, Viscount H, Uyehara C, Hospenthal D. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;24(6):439-44.
Sentinel Cases of Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus onboard a Naval Ship.
LaMar JE, Carr RB, Zinderman C, McDonald K. Mil Med. 2003 Feb;168(2):135-8.