Tobacco-Free Living

 TFL Literature Review, Reports and Publications for Providers

Last Updated: August 08, 2018
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Annual Healthcare Spending Attributable to Cigarette Smoking External Link (American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015) Fifty years after the first Surgeon General's report, tobacco use remains the nation's leading preventable cause of death and disease, despite declines in adult cigarette smoking prevalence. Smoking-attributable healthcare spending is an important part of overall smoking-attributable costs in the U.S. (document access requires a cost or membership login)

Community Guide Tobacco Section External Link Task Force Recommendations and Findings: 1. Provider Reminder Systems is an effective means to reducing tobacco use.  2.  Adding provider education with Provider Reminder Systems is also effective however just providing education was not proven effective.  3. Smoking bans are proven to decrease smoking and exposure to second hand smoke.  Click on this tobacco section to learn more.

Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Health Related Behaviors External Link Executive Summary (SHRUB, 2013)  The DoD has been conducting this survey since 1980; the current 2011 survey is the 12th iteration. The purpose of this study is to assess health behaviors that have the potential to impact readiness and to assess the overall well-being of the Armed Forces. The DoD uses data from the SHRUB to improve education, training, treatment, and counseling to support the Services and optimize individual and overall health status and fitness. Tobacco use information is found in 'Overview of Substance Use', pgs. ES 8-9.

National Prevention Strategy: America's Plan for Better Health and Wellness External Link  (2011) The National Prevention Strategy is the nation's first such strategy. It is a critical component of the Affordable Care Act, and it provides an opportunity for the nation to become healthy and fit. The Strategy intends to move the nation from a system of sick care to one based on wellness and prevention. It focuses on housing, transportation, education, workplaces and environments as major elements that impact the physical and mental health of Americans.

Healthy People 2020, A Framework for Ending the Tobacco Use Epidemic External Link  The goal of Healthy People 2020 related to tobacco use is to reduce illness, disability, and death related to tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke.  Healthy People 2020 provides a framework for action to reduce tobacco use to the point that it is no longer a public health problem for the Nation. This document provides an overview, issues and trends, disparities, opportunities to reduce tobacco use in the U.S., and the specifics of the objectives related to tobacco use and cessation.

Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) External Link The Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) is a tool used by health plans to measure performance on important dimensions of care and service.  The National Committee for Quality Assurance State of Health Care Quality report published in 2007 provides statistics on use and interventions, definition of HEDIS measures and current performance, and the case for improvement.  Information on medical assistance with smoking cessation is on pages 48-49.  The measure evaluates three components: advising smokers to quit, discussing smoking cessation medications, and discussing smoking cessation strategies.

Veterans Health Affairs National Smoking and Tobacco Use Cessation Program, Directive 1056 External Link (2014) This Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Directive describes VHA policies and programs relating to the VHA Smoking and Tobacco Use Cessation Program.

50th Anniversary of the first Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health External Link  We now know that smoking causes a host of cancers and other illnesses and is still the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. In the 50 years since the release of the first report, 30 additional Surgeon General's Reports have increased our knowledge and understanding of the devastating health and financial burdens caused by tobacco use. The Office of the Surgeon General will be working to increase awareness of the progress that has taken place by engaging existing tobacco control, public health, and wellness partners, and establishing partnerships with organizations new to our cause. This site contains downloadable materials to make your outreach efforts easy. More materials will be added to the site as they become available.

Tobacco Related Literature

Breast Cancer External Link (HealthDay, 2010)  Nicotine may directly promote the development of breast cancer by binding to a certain cell receptor.

CDC: Tobacco Product Use among Middle and High School Students, U.S. 2011 and 2012 External Link (MMWR, 2013) Nearly 90% of adult smokers in the United States began smoking by age 18 years. This is an eye-opening report on the prevalence of tobacco product use among middle and high school students.

Cigarette Prices in Military Retail: A Review and Proposal for Advancing Military Health Policy External Link (Military Medicine, 2013)  An analysis of why current military tobacco pricing policy has failed to eliminate cheap tobacco prices and rationale for increasing tobacco prices is presented with recommendations for improved tobacco control policy.

Cigarette Smoking, Suicidal Behavior, and Serotonin Function in Major Psychiatric Disorders External Link (American Journal of Psychiatry, 2003)  Study investigating the relationship that may exist between cigarette smoking and suicidal behavior may be associated with lower serotonin function and the presence of impulsive/aggressive traits.

Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis External Link  (BMJ, 2014)  Investigates change in mental health after smoking cessation compared with continuing to smoke.

Electronic Cigarettes External Link (American Heart Association: Circulation, 2014)  Electronic cigarettes come in many forms and are often not called e-cigarettes by users, and are being aggressively advertised.

Lung Inflammation External Link (Science Daily, 2010)  Cigarette smoke shuts off a key enzyme in airways that regulates the body's response to inflammation.

Smoke, The Chief Killer External Link(New England Journal of Medicine, 2014) Strategies for clinicians for targeting combustible tobacco use and discussing the harmful effects of tobacco.

Smoking and Depression External Link (Medscape, 2010) (requires free account login)  Smoking may increase symptoms of depression in adolescents.

Smoking in Top-Grossing Movies External Link (Journal of the American Medical Association, 2010) Smoking in top-grossing movies and its impact on increasing tobacco usage in youths.

World health organization report on global tobacco epidemic 2013 External Link Enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.

Mortality and Morbidity Statistics

CDC: Smoking and Tobacco Use External Link (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports) Data and statistics reports by year and by topic. Links to state data, fact sheets, surveys, and Surgeon General reports.

CDC: Current Cigarette Smoking among Adults,  2005 - 2012 External Link  Despite significant declines during the past 30 years, cigarette smoking among adults in the United States remains widespread.

Return on Investment

Return on Investment Supports CDC TIPS from Former Smokers Campaign External Link  The Tips campaign is one of the most cost-effective of all health interventions.

Making the Business Case for Smoking Cessation External Link  This site presents the business case for smoking cessation. The information can be used by health insurance plans, employers, purchasers, and health benefits managers to gain valuable insight into the economic advantages of a range of smoking cessation programs.