Industrial Hygiene

IH Related Technical Guides

Last Updated: December 18, 2017

​Industrial Hygiene Related Technical Guides useful to Industrial Hygienists

Terminology and Nomenclature (links below)

Applications (links below)

Engineered nanomaterials are gaining in commercial application.

Engineered nanomaterials are currently being used in electronic, magnetic, biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, energy, catalytic and materials applications.

Government agencies (including the DoD) and private sectors are actively researching their potential for use in various products and applications. 

The DoD is expected to increasingly use commercially available products using nanotechnology or that are nano-enabled or contain engineered nanomaterials.
The DoD is also investing in nanotechnology research and development to improve military effectiveness and soldier survivability.

DoD investments in these advanced technologies are essential to maintaining the technological edge the U.S. forces will continue to depend on in the future for success on the battlefield and for protecting our homeland security.

Environmental, Safety, and Occupational Health Implications (links below)

Findings in recent years have demonstrated that the fundamental properties (e.g., mechanical, biological, catalytic) of particles may be enhanced or may be significantly different for nanoscale particles than for larger particles of identical chemical composition and these properties are being exploited to make new and improved materials.

 

Though enhanced or significantly different physical-chemical properties of nanoscale particles may be exploited to make new and improved materials, they may also result indirectly in materials whose health and environmental effects may differ from that of larger particles of identical chemical composition.

 

Studies of carbon nanotubes in rodents have shown early-onset of pulmonary fibrosis, granulomas, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and cardiovascular system. 

 

Metal nanoparticles, including cobalt and nickel caused greater lung inflammation and injury in rats than micrometer-sized particles. 

 

Liver, kidney, and spleen were target organs of copper nanoparticles in mice exposed by oral gavage, causing acute toxicity, while micrometer-sized copper did not. 

 

Contaminants associated with specific nanoparticles (e.g., metals used as catalysts) may pose a health risk to workers. 

 

Studies in animals have shown that, when inhaled, some nanoparticles (e.g., 30 nanometer (nm) manganese oxide particles, 35 nm carbon particles, 50 nm colloidal gold particles) that are deposited in the head airways are able to travel along nerves and up to the brain. 

 

Other studies have shown that some nanoparticles can evade the lung defense system (e.g., alveolar macrophages) and clear more slowly from the lung than micrometer-size particles. 

 

In some animal studies, certain nanoparticles have been shown to readily travel from the lungs into the blood and to other organs (e.g., heart, liver, spleen, etc.), whereas with larger micron-sized particles this was not found to be the case. 

 

Other studies have found that on a mass-to-mass basis, some insoluble nanoparticles were more toxic and tumorigenic than larger particles of identical chemical composition. 

 

There is also a concern that some nanoparticles in the size range of biological molecules, proteins, and intracellular machinery critical to life may react with or interfere with biological functions.  

 

Because of the uncertainties with regards to health effects of certain engineered nanomaterials, registries should be maintained of all personnel designated as engineered nano-object (ENO) workers and the U.S. Army industrial hygienist will play a critical role in determining which workers should be designated as such. 

 

It is important for U.S. Army Industrial Hygienists to be engaged in this diverse and rapidly developing area to provide the best advice in assessing and controlling exposures. 

 

A number of resources are provided in the topics below which will help the industrial hygienist in the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of engineered nanomaterials.



TERMINOLOGY and NOMENCLATURE

  • Agglomerate: a group of particles held together by relatively weak forces (for example, Van der Waals), that may break apart into smaller particles upon processing.
  • Aggregate: a discrete group of particles in which the various individual components are not easily broken apart, such as in the case of primary particles that are strongly bonded together (for example, fused, sintered, or metallically bonded particles).
  • Bound engineered nano-object (BENO): engineered nano-objects that, under reasonably foreseeable conditions encountered in the work, are contained within a matrix that would be expected to prevent the nano-objects from being separately mobile and a potential source of exposure. An engineered nano-object dispersed and fixed within a polymer matrix, incapable, as a practical matter, of becoming airborne, would be "bound".
  • Engineered Nanomaterial: Material that is intentionally produced to have specific properties or specific composition and is either a nano-object or is nanostructured.
    Note: Volume Specific Surface Area (VSSA) has been suggested as a parameter (in addition to particle size) to differentiate particulate nanomaterial from non-nanomaterial, suggesting that ≥ 60 m2/cm3 be considered as nanomaterial since a 100 nm spherical non-porous particle of 1 g/cm3 density would have a BET specific surface area of 60 m2/g. For instance, a particulate with a bulk density of 1 g/cm3 and a BET specific surface area of 60 m2/g would have a VSSA of 60 m2/cm3, i.e., (BET SSA)*(bulk density), (60 m2/g)*(1g/cm3). As another example, a particulate with a bulk density of 4.26 g/cm3 and a BET specific surface area of 14 m2/g would have a VSSA of 60 m2/cm3, i.e., (BET SSA)*(bulk density), (14 m2/g)*(4.26 g/cm3).
    Engineered nano-object (ENO): Material that is intentionally produced to have specific properties or specific composition and has one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale.
    Note: Examples of engineered nano-objects include intentionally produced nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanoplates, fullerenes, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoplates, nanoscale metals or metal oxides, quantum dots, etc.
  • Engineered nano-object worker: a worker who performs any of the following activities: handles or works with "free" or "unbound" ENOs such as powders or liquid dispersions containing ENOs or agglomerates thereof; performs machining, sanding, drilling, or other types of mechanical disruption of materials containing BENOs; routinely spends time in an area in which ENOs have the potential to become dispersed in the air; cleanup of spills or waste material containing "free" or "unbound" ENOs; works on or performs maintenance of equipment that might contain or bear "free" or "unbound" ENOs and that could release "free" or "unbound" ENOs during servicing or maintenance.
    Note: Those exposed to incidental nano-objects or nanoparticles are not considered engineered nano-object workers.
  • Incidental nanoparticles: nanoparticles which are NOT intentionally produced to have specific properties or specific composition.
    Note: Incidental nanoparticles may be by-products formed whenever something is burned or combusted (e.g., burning of diesel fuel, natural gas, firewood, candles, incense, tobacco, etc.), formed during hot processes (e.g., smelting, welding, soldering, thermal cutting, thermal spraying, asphalt fumes, working around molten lead crystal glass, bakery, frying, gas ovens, etc.), laser beam processing, and high speed grinding.
  • Nanofibre: nano-object with two similar dimensions in the nanoscale and the third dimension significantly larger
  • Nano-object: material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale
  • Nanoparticle: nano-object with all three external dimensions in the nanoscale
    Note: there is some disagreement on how many dimensions of a particle must be confined to the nanoscale in order for the particle to be considered a nanoparticle. Some consider particles with at least one dimension confined to the nanoscale to be a nanoparticle, while others consider particles with at least two dimensions confined to the nanoscale, and others consider particles with all three dimensions confined to the nanoscale. The definition chosen herein is in accordance with that defined by the ISO Technical Committee 229 Nanotechnologies.
  • Nanoplate: nano-object with one external dimension in the nanoscale and the two other dimensions significantly larger
  • Nanoscale: size range from approximately 1 nanometers (nm) to 100 nm
  • Nanostructured: Having an internal or surface structure at the nanoscale.
    Note: An agglomerate or aggregate of nano-objects is considered nanostructured whether the size of the agglomerate or aggregate is within the nanoscale or larger than the nanoscale, e.g., a 100 micrometer size agglomerate of carbon nanotubes is larger than the nanoscale but is nanostructured since the carbon nanotubes are nano-objects.
  • Particle: a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties.
  • Primary particle: smallest identifiable subdivision of a particulate system
    Note: For example, the discrete particles within an agglomerate or aggregate
    Unbound engineered nano-object (UENO): engineered nano-objects that, under reasonably foreseeable conditions encountered in the work, are not contained within a matrix that would be expected to prevent the engineered nano-objects from being separately mobile and a potential source of exposure. An engineered nano-object suspended as an aerosol or in a liquid would be "unbound" or "free".

Terminology and Nomenclature Resources

Government Resources

National Cancer Institute

External Resources

• ASTM E56 Nanotechnology (published)
1.  ASTM E56, Terminology for Nanotechnology, E-2456-06 external link icon
• ASTM E56 Nanotechnology (under development)
1.  ASTM WK28974 - New Specification for A Standard File Format For the Submission and Exchange of Data on Nanomaterials and Characterizations external link icon
• Baron, P.A. and Willeke, K., Aerosol Measurement, Principals, Techniques, and Applications, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001
• British Standards Institute (BSi)
Vocabulary – Nanoparticles, PAS 71:2005 external link icon    – Terminology external link icon • PAS 131 Terminology for medical, health and personal care applications of nanotechnologies
• PAS 132 Terminology for the bio-nano interface
• PAS 133 Terminology for nanoscale measurement and instrumentation
• PAS 134 Terminology for carbon nanostructures
• PAS 135 Terminology for nanofabrication
• PAS 136 Terminology for nanomaterials
• European Commission
- Joint Research Centre, Considerations on a Definition
of Nanomaterial for Regulatory Purposes, February 2010 external link icon    -  European Commission's urgent request to the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) for a science-based definition for "Nanomaterials", March 2010 external link icon    - Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR),  Scientific Basis for the Definition of the Term "Nanomaterial"external link icon, 6 July 2010
• Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Office of Pharmaceutical Science,  Manual of Policies and Procedures (MAPP) 5015.9, Reporting format for nanotechnology-related information in CMC review external link icon, 6 June 2010
• Health Canada,  Interim Policy Statement on Health Canada's Working Definition for Nanomaterials external link icon    • Hinds, W.C., Aerosol Technology – Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1999.
ISO Concept Database external link icon
A free search engine for published ISO terms and definitions, including terms related to nanotechnologies
 ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies external link icon (projects under development)
– ISO/CD TR 12802 Nanotechnologies – Model taxonomic framework for use in developing vocabularies – Core concepts
– ISO/AWI TR 14786 Nanotechnologies -- Framework for nomenclature models for nano-objects
– ISO/AWI TS 80004-1 Nanotechnologies -- Vocabulary - Part 1: Core terms
– ISO/CD TS 80004-4 Nanotechnologies – Vocabulary - Part 4: Nanostructured materials
– ISO/AWI TS 80004-5 Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 5: Bio/nano interface
– ISO/AWI 80004-6 Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 6: Nanoscale measurement and instrumentation
– ISO/AWI 80004-7 Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 7: Medical, health and personal care applications
– ISO/NP TS 80004-8 Nanotechnologies -- Vocabulary -- Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes
• ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies (published documents)
-  ISO/TS 27687:2008 Nanotechnologies -- Terminology and definitions for nano-objects -- Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate external link icon
-  ISO/TS 80004-3:2010 Nanotechnologies – Vocabulary – Part 3: Carbon nano-objects external link icon
-  ISO/TR 11360:2010 Nanotechnologies - Methodology for the classification and categorization of nanomaterials external link icon
 ISO TC 146 Workplace Atmospheres: Ultrafine, nanoparticle and nano-structured aerosols - Exposure characterization and assessment. Geneva: Switzerland: International Standards Organization. Document no. ISO/TR 27628, 2007 external link icon
• Literature
1. Hansen, et. al, Categorization framework to aid hazard identification of nanomaterials, Nanotoxicology, 1-8, November 2007.
2. Auffan et. al.,  Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health, and safety perspective, Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 4, October 2009 external link icon
3. Kreyling WG et. al., A complementary definition of nanomaterial, Nano Today, 5:165-8, June 2010.

APPLICATIONS

Government Resources - DoD

1. Advanced Materials, Manufacturing, and Testing Information Analysis Center Quarterly

external link icon2. Army Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command (AMCOM) external link icon 3. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) external link icone.g., researching various engineered nanomaterial applications (e.g., for use in camouflage coatings and to enhance the strength of construction materials)
4. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) Medical Research and Material Command (MRMC) external link icon – nanotechnology medical applications (i.e., nanomedicine, diagnostics, therapeutics, treatment, etc.).
Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) external link icon
Nano-medicine and biomaterials
Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) external link icon Combat Casualty Care Research Program (CCCRP) external link icon(Research at US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) external link icon
Military Operational Medicine Research Program external link icon Clinical and Rehabilitative Medicine (CRM) external link icon (includes Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine (AFIRM) external link icon 5.  Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) external link icon - nanotechnology research and development occurring or funded by various centers or laboratories within RDECOM
 Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) external link icon Army Research Laboratory (ARL) external link icon Aviation & Missile Research, Development & Engineering Center (AMRDEC) external link icon  Communications-Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center external link icon Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) external link icon• Natick Soldier Research, Development and Research Center (NSRDEC)
6. Army Research Office external link icon, collaborates with MIT Soldier Institutes of Nanotechnologies on use of engineered nanomaterials to improve the survival of soldiers
7. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) external link icon 8.  Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) external link icon 9.  Department of Defense Research & Engineering (DoDR&E) Strategic Plan, 2007 external link icon 10. Missile Defense Agency (MDA) external link icon 11.  Nanotechnology for Defense Conference external link icon 12. National Nanotechnology Initiative, Supplement to the President's 2012 Budget, March 2011 external link icon 13. Naval Research Laboratory: Nanoscience and Technology external link icon 14.  Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgeryexternal link iconnanotechnology medical applications (i.e., nanomedicine, diagnostics, therapeutics, treatment, etc.).
 Naval Medical Research Center external link icon  Naval Health Research Center external link icon  Naval Medical Research Center Unit San Antonio external link icon  Navy Medicine West external link icon  NASA - Nanotechnology external link icon  National Institutes of Health, Nanomedicine external link icon – National Cancer Institute, nanotechnology and cancer
 http://nano.cancer.gov/resource_center/exploring.asp external link icon  http://ncl.cancer.gov/working_ncl-nano.asp external link icon•  http://nano.cancer.gov/resource_center/scientific_bibliography.asp

• National Nanotechnology Initiative
Supplement to the President's 2012 Budget, March 2011 external link icon – Report to the President and Congress on the Third Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, Executive Office of the President, President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, March 2010
 Applications/products external link icon  NNI Centers, Networks and Facilities external link icon Nanobiotechnology external link icon Nanoscience Research for Energy Needs external link icon Nanotechnology-Enabled Sensing  external link icon

External Resources

American Chemical Society – Nanofocus external link icon The Alliance for NanoHealth, medical applications external link icon • European Commission
- Overview on Promising Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications
Ion Channel Media, Nanomedicine external link icon The Institute for Nanoelectronics and Computing external link icon Meridian Institute, nanotechnology in water treatment external link icon MIT Soldier Institute of Nanotechnologies external link icon  Small Times Direct external link icon UnderstandingNano.com external link icon • Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Inventories external link icon • Consumer Products
• US NanoMetro Map
• Agriculture and Food
• Medicine
• Silver Nanotechnology in Commercial Products
Environment and Green Nanotechnology external link icon

ENVIRONMENTAL, SAFETY, and OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Measurement and Characterization

Government Resources

• DOE
DOE N456.1, The Safe Handling of Unbound Engineered Nanoparticles, 1/5/09 external link icon
 DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers, Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H, Revision 3a – May 08 external link icon
• EPA
 Nanoparticle Air Monitoring Workshop, March 2009 external link icon
• NIOSH
Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology – Managing the Health and Safety Concerns Associated with Engineered Nanomaterials, 2009 external link icon
• NNI
Human & Environmental Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials Workshop, 24-25 February 2009 external link icon
– NanoEHS Environment & Instrumentation Workshop: Nanomaterials and the Environment & Instrumentation, Metrology and Analytical Methods, 6-7 October 2009
NanoEHS Health & Instrumentation Workshop: Nanomaterials and Human Health & Instrumentation, Metrology, and Analytical Methods, 17-19 November 2009 external link icon
• NIST
Characterization, Nanometrology, and Nanoscale Measurements Portal external link icon
 "How to Measure" Book Series external link icon
1. Measurement Issues in Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes
2. Porosity and Specific Surface Area Measurements for Solid Materials
3. Particle Size Characterization
 Material Standards for Environmental Health & Safety for Engineered Nanoscale Materials, a Report Based on a NIST Workshop held September 12-17, 2007 external link icon
 The Second Tri-National Workshop on Standards for Nanotechnology, 2008 external link icon
– Standard Reference Materials and Reference Materials
1.  NIST Reference Materials external link icon
1. Nanoparticle Metrology and Standards for Biomedical Applications and Health external link icon
2.  Material Standards for Environmental Health & Safety for Engineered Nanoscale Materials, a Report Based on a NIST Workshop held September 12-17, 2007 external link icon

External Resources

 ASTM E56 Nanotechnologies (Published) external link icon
1. E2490-09 Standard Guide for Measurement of Particle Size Distribution of Nanomaterials in Suspension by Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS)
2. E2578-07 Standard Guide for Calculation of Mean Sizes/Diameters and Standard Deviations of Particle Size Distribution
3.  ASTM, E2535-07 Standard Guide for Handling Unbound Engineered Nanoscale Particles in Occupational Settings, November 2007 external link icon
 ASTM E56 Nanotechnologies (Draft Stage) external link icon
1. WK21915 Zeta potential measurement by electrophoretic mobility
2. WK26321 Measurement of particle size distribution of nanomaterials in suspension by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)
3. WK29480 - New Practice for Size Measurement of Nanoparticles Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
• IRSST
-  Best Practices Guide to Synthetic Nanoparticle Risk Management, January 2009 external link icon
-  Engineered Nanoparticles, Current Knowledge about OHS Risks and Prevention Measures, 2nd Edition, July 2010 external link icon
 ISO TC 146 Workplace Atmospheres: Ultrafine, nanoparticle and nano-structured aerosols - Exposure characterization and assessment. Geneva: Switzerland: International Standards Organization. Document no. ISO/TR 27628, 2007 external link icon
• ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies (published standards)
1.  ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies: Health and safety practices in occupational settings relevant to nanotechnologies. Document no. ISO/TR 12885, 2008 external link icon
2.  ISO/TS 10867:2010 Nanotechnologies - Characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubes using near infrared photoluminescence spectroscopy, 2010 external link icon
 ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies (projects under development) external link icon
– ISO/WD TS 10797 Nanotubes -- Use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)
– ISO/CD TS 10798 Nanotubes -- Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) in the characterization of SWCNTs
– ISO/AWI TS 10812 Nanotechnologies -- Use of Raman spectroscopy in the characterization of SWCNTs
– ISO/CD TS 10868 Nanotubes - Use of UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy in the characterization of SWCNTs
– ISO/CD TR 10929 Measurement methods for the characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)
– ISO/PRF TS 11251 - Nanotechnologies -- Characterization of volatile components in single-wall carbon nanotube samples using evolved gas analysis/gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry
– ISO/CD TS 11308 Nanotechnologies -- Use of thermo gravimetric analysis in the purity evaluation of SWCNT
– ISO/AWI TR 11808 Nanotechnologies – Guidance on nanoparticle measurement methods and their limitations
– ISO/NP TR 11811 Nanotechnologies -- Guidance on methods for nanotribology measurements
– ISO/NP TR 11888 Determination of mesoscopic shape factors of MWCNTs
– ISO/AWI TS 11931-1 Nanotechnologies -- Nano-calcium carbonate -- Part 1: Characteristics and measurement methods
– ISO/AWI TS 11937-1 Nanotechnologies -- Nano-titanium dioxide -- Part 1: Characteristics and measurement methods
– ISO/CD 12025 Nanomaterials -- General framework for determining nanoparticle content in nanomaterials by generation of aerosols
– ISO/AWI TR 13014 - Nanotechnologies - Guidance on physico-chemical characterization of engineered nanoscale materials for toxicologic assessment
– ISO/NP TS 13126 Artificial gratings used in nanotechnology – Description and measurement of dimensional quality parameters
– ISO/NP TS 13278 Carbon nanotubes – Determination of metal impurities in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS)
– ISO/NP TS 14101 - Surface characterization of gold nanoparticles for nanomaterial specific toxicity screening: FT-IR method
– ISO/AWI TS 16195 – Nanotechnologies – Generic requirements for reference materials for development of methods for characteristic testing, performance testing and safety testing of nanoparticle and nano-fiber powders
 International Workshop on Documentary Standards for Measurement and Characterization in Nanotechnologies, February 2008 external link icon
• Literature and Presentations
1. Bello et. al., Particle exposure levels during CVD growth and subsequent handling of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube films, Carbon 266: 974-981, 2008
2. Bello et. al., Exposure to nanoscale particles and fibers during machining of hybrid advanced composites containing carbon nanotubes, J. Nanoparticle Research, 11:231-249, 2009
3. Brouwer et. al., Personal Exposure to Ultrafine Particles in the Workplace: Exploring Sampling Techniques and Strategies, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Vol. 48, No. 5, March 2004
4. Brouwer, et. al., From workplace air measurement results toward estimates of exposure? Development of a strategy to assess exposure to manufactured nano-objects, J. Nanoparticle Research, 11:1867-1881, October 2009
5. Demou et. al., Exposure to Manufactured Nanostructured Particles in an Industrial Pilot Plant, Ann. Occup. Hyg, No. 8, pp. 695-706, 2008
6. Fujitani, et. al., Measurement of the Physical Properties of Aerosols in a Fullerene Factory for Inhalation Exposure Assessment, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 5:380-389, June 2008
7. Geraci, CL, Exposure Assessment: Current Exposure Data, Conference Presentation at "Nanomaterials and Worker Health: Medical Surveillance, Exposure Registries, and Epidemiologic Research", 21-23 July 2010 external link icon
8. Han JH, et. al., Monitoring multiwalled carbon nanotube exposure in carbon nanotube research facility, Inhal Toxicol 20:741-749, 2008
9.Johnson et. al., Potential for Occupational Exposure to Engineered Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Environmental Laboratory Studies, Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 118, Number 1, January 2010 external link icon
10.  Johnson et. al, Potential for Occupational Exposure to Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Environmentally-Relevant Matrices, Presentation, 23 November 2009 external link icon
11. Kuhlbush, et. al., Number Size Distribution, Mass Concentration, and Particle Composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in Bag Filling Areas of Carbon Black Production, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 1:660-671, October 2004
12. Kuhlbush, T.A.J., and Fissan, H., Particle Characteristics in the Reactor and Pelletizing Areas of Carbon Black Production, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 3:558-567, October 2006
13. Lee et. a., Exposure assessment of carbon nanotube manufacturing workplaces, Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 22(5), pp. 369-81, April 2010
14. Maynard et. al., Exposure to Carbon Nanotube Material: Aerosol Release During the Handling of Unrefined Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Material, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 67:87-107, 2004
15. Maynard, A.D. and Aitken, R.J., Assessing exposure to airborne nanomaterials: Current abilities and future requirements, Nanotoxicology, Volume 11, 26-41, March 2007 external link icon
16. Methner et. al., Identification and characterization of potential sources of worker exposure to carbon nanofibers during polymer composite laboratory operations, J. Occup Environ Hyg 5:D63-D69, 2007
17. Methner et. al., Nanoparticle Emission Asessment Technique (NEAT) for the Identification and Measurement of Potential Inhalation Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials – Part A, 16 December 2009
18. Methner et. al., Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT) for the Identification and Measurement of Potential Inhalation Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials – Part B: Results from 12 Field Studies, 6 January 2010
19. Old, L. and Methner, M., Engineering Case Reports: Effectiveness of Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) in Controlling Engineered Nanomaterial Emissions During Reactor Cleanout Operations, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 5:D63-D69, June 2008
20. Ono-Ogasawara et. al., Distinguishing nanomaterial particles from background airborne particulate matter for quantitative exposure assessment, J. Nanoparticle Research, 11:1651-1659, July 2009
21. Park et. al., Characterization of exposure to silver nanoparticles in a manufacturing facility, 11:1705-1712, August 2009
22. Peters et. al., Airborne Monitoring to Distinguish Engineered Nanomaterials form Incidental Particles for Environmental Health and Safety, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 6:73-81, February 2009
23. Tsai S-J. et. al., Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods, J. Nanoparticle Res, 2008
24. Tsai S-J. et. al., Airborne nanoparticle release associated with the compounding of nanocomposites using nanoalumina as fillers, Aerosol Air Qual Res 8:160-177, 2008
25. Yeganeh et. al., Characterization of airborne particles during production of carbonaceous nanomaterials, Environ Sci Technol 42:4600-4606, 2008
 OECD external link icon
1.  No. 8 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)6, Preliminary Analysis of Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation in Occupational Settings: Manufactured Nanomaterials, 17 April 2009 external link icon
2. No. 10 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)15, Identification, Compilation and Analysis of Guidance Information for Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation: Manufactured Nanomaterials, 22 June 2009 external link icon
3. No. 11 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)16, Emmision Assessment for Identification of Sources and Release of Airborne Manufactured Nanomaterials in the Workplace: Compilation of Existing Guidance, 18 June 2009 external link icon
4.  No. 13 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)18, Report of an OECD Workshop on Exposure Assessment and Exposure Mitigation: Manufactured Nanomaterials, 27 August 2009 external link icon

Toxicological Assessment and Physico-Chemical Characterization

Government Resources

• U.S. Air Force, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Human Effectiveness Directorate, Biosciences and Protection Division
 Applied Biotechnology Branch (in vitro toxicology engineered nanomaterial research, etc.) external link icon
Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC).external link icon
 Environmental Laboratory (Engineered Nanomaterial Risk Assessment: Environmental Behavior and Ecotoxicological-Related Research) external link icon
U.S. Army Public Health Command (Provisional) Directorate of Toxicology external link icon
Health Effects Research Laboratory external link icon
Toxicology Evaluation Program external link icon
• Environmental Protection Agency
1.  Harmonized Test Guidelines
NCI Cancer NanoLab (caNanoLab) Wiki external link icon– biomedicine
caNanoLab Portal external link icon
NCI Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory
 Assay Cascade Protocols external link icon: In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization
 Three ASTM nanotoxicology standards were part of a inter-laboratory study using a nanoscale colloidal gold reference material external link icon

External Resources (Toxicological Assessment)

 ASTM E56 Nanotechnologies external link icon
– ASTM E2524 - 08 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hemolytic Properties of Nanoparticles
– ASTM E2525 - 08 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of the
Effect of Nanoparticulate Materials on the Formation of Mouse
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colonies
– ASTM E2526 - 08 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of
Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticulate Materials in Porcine Kidney Cells
and Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells
• Dupont and Environmental Defense
1. Environmental Defense – DuPont Nano Risk Framework, June 2007 external link icon
2. Warheit et. al. (2007), Development of a base set of toxicity tests using ultrafine TiO2 particles as a component of a nanoparticle risk management, Toxicology Letters 171, 99-110, 2007 external link icon
• ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies (published documents)
 ISO 29701:2010 Nanotechnologies -- Endotoxin test on nanomaterial samples for in vitro systems -- Limulus amebocytelysate (LAL) test external link icon
 ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies (projects under development) external link icon
– ISO/FDIS 10801 Nanotechnologies -- Generation of metal
nanoparticles for inhalation toxicity testing using the
evaporation/condensation method
– ISO/FDIS 10808 Nanotechnologies -- Characterization of
nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for inhalation toxicity
testing
– ISO/TR 16196 Nanotechnologies – Guidance on sample
preparation methods and dosimetry considerations for
manufactured nanomaterials
– ISO/TR 16197 Nanotechnologies – Guidance on toxicological
screening methods for manufactured nanomaterials
 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) external link icon
 OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals external link icon
 Sponsorship Programme for the Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials external link icon
1.  Countries and Stakeholders external link icon
2. No. 6 - ENV/JM/MONO(2008)13/REV, List of Manufactured Nanomaterials and List of Endpoints for Phase One of the OECD Testing Programme external link icon
No. 15 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)21, Preliminary Review of OECD Test Guidelines for their Applicability to Manufactured Nanomaterials, 10 July 2009 external link icon
No. 24 - ENV/JM/MONO(2010)25, Preliminary Guidance Notes on Sample Preparation and Dosimetry for the Safety Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials external link icon
No. 25 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)20/REV, Guidance Manual for the Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials: OECD Sponsorship Programme: First Revision external link icon
• Literature

1. Murdock et. al., Characterization of Nanomaterials Dispersion in Solution Prior to In Vitro Exposure Using Dynamic Light Scattering Technique, Toxicological Sciences 101(2), 239-253, 2008
2. Nel et. al., Toxic Potential of Materials at the Nanolevel, Science, Vol. 311, pp. 622-627, 3 February 2006.
3. Powers, et. al., Research Strategies for Safety Evaluation of Nanomaterials. Part VI. Characterization of Nanoscale Particles for Toxicological Evaluation, Toxicological Sciences 90(2), 296-303, 2006.
4. Powers, et. al., Characterization of the size, shape, and state of dispersion of nanoparticles for toxicological studies, Nanotoxicology, 1:1, 42 – 51, March 2007 external link icon
5. Warheit, How Meaningful are the Results of Nanotoxicology Studies in the Absence of Adequate Material Characterization? Toxicological Sciences 101(2), 183-185, 2008.

Occupational Risk Assessment and Management

Government Resources

• Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center/Air Force Research Laboratory
-  Presentations from the 2nd USAF ASC/AFRL ESOH Nanomaterials Workshop, 3-5 November 2009 external link icon
• Army Public Health Command (Provisional)
- Engineered Nanomaterials: ESOH Risk Management Issues for R&D Workers, Session 1C Emerging Contaminants – From Assessment to Action, 1 December 2009, Partners and Environmental Technology Symposium & Workshop external link icon
• DoD
-  DoD Instruction 6050.05, DoD Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) Program, 2006, paragraph 6.2.2 external link icon
- DoD Emerging Contaminants Integrated Product Team (EC-IPT) Nanomaterials Work Group external link icon
-  Environmental, Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH) Risks from Engineered Nanomaterials, DoD Memorandum from Mr. John Young, Jr., Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L), 13 May 2008 external link icon
-  Framework with NIOSH for Nanomaterial Investigation, DoD Memorandum from Dorothy Robyn, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense, Installation and Environment, 23 Oct 2009 external link icon
• DOE
- DOE N456.1, The Safe Handling of Unbound Engineered Nanoparticles, 1/5/09 external link icon
-  DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers, Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H, Revision 3a – May 08 external link icon
• NIOSH
1.  Evaluation of Health Hazard and Recommendations for Occupational Exposure to Titanium Dioxide, DRAFT Current Intelligence Bulletin" November 2005 external link icon
2. Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology – Managing the Health and Safety Concerns Associated with Engineered Nanomaterials, 2009 external link icon
3.  Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HETA #2005-0291-3025, [Carbon Nanofibers], University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, October 06 external link icon
NNI, Capstone Meeting: Risk Management Methods & Ethical, Legal, and Societal Implications of Nanotechnology, 30-31 March 2010 external link icon
 Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Nanotechnology external link icon

External Resources

ACGIH, Ventilation Requirements for Engineered Nanomaterials (Chapter 13, para. 13.67, IN: Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended Practice for Design, 27th Edition, ACGIH, 2010) external link icon
 ASTM, E2535-07 Standard Guide for Handling Unbound Engineered Nanoscale Particles in Occupational Settings, November 2007 external link icon
BSI, Nanotechnologies – Part 2: Guide to safe handling and disposal of manufactured nanomaterials, December 2007 external link icon
• International Council On Nanotechnology: GoodNanoGuide external link icon
• Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST):
-  Best Practices Guide to Synthetic Nanoparticle Risk Management, January 2009 external link icon
-  Engineered Nanoparticles, Current Knowledge about OHS Risks and Prevention Measures, 2nd Edition, July 2010 external link icon
• ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies (published standards)
1.  ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies: Health and safety practices in occupational settings relevant to nanotechnologies. Document no. ISO/TR 12885, 2008 external link icon
 ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies (projects under development) external link icon
1. ISO/AWI TS 12901 Nanotechologies – Guidance on safe handling and disposal of manufactured nanomaterials
2. ISO/NP TS 12901-2 Guidelines for occupational risk management applied to engineered nanomaterials based on a "control banding approach"
3. ISO/NP TR 13329 Nanomaterials – Preparation of Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
4. ISO/PRF TS 13830 Guidance on the labeling of manufactured nano-objects and products containing manufactured nano-objects
• Massachusetts Office of Technical Assistance (OTA),  OTA Technology Guidance Document: Nanotechnology – Considerations for Safe Development, August 2010 external link icon
 OECD external link icon
1. No. 8 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)6, Preliminary Analysis of Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation in Occupational Settings: Manufactured Nanomaterials, 17 April 2009 external link icon
2. No. 10 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)15, Identification, Compilation and Analysis of Guidance Information for Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation: Manufactured Nanomaterials, 22 June 2009 external link icon
3. No. 11 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)16, Emmision Assessment for Identification of Sources and Release of Airborne Manufactured Nanomaterials in the Workplace: Compilation of Existing Guidance, 18 June 2009 external link icon
4. No. 12 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)17, Comparison of Guidance on Selection of Skin Protective Equipment and Respirators for Use in the Workplace: Manufactured Nanomaterials external link icon
5. No. 13 - ENV/JM/MONO(2009)18, Report of an OECD Workshop on Exposure Assessment and Exposure Mitigation: Manufactured Nanomaterials, 27 August 2009 external link icon
• Literature
1. Auffan et. al., Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health, and safety perspective, Nature Nanotechnology, Vo.. 4, October 2009 external link icon
2. Paik, et. al., Application of a Pilot Banding Tool for Risk Level Assessment and Control of Nanoparticle Exposures, Ann. Occup. Hyg. Vol. 52, No. 6, 2008
3. Schulte, PA, et. al., NIOSH, Occupational Risk Management of Engineered Nanoparticles, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2:4, Apr 08
4. Schulte, PA, et. al., Occupational Exposure Limits for Nanomaterials: state of the art, J. Nanoparticle Research, July 2010
5. Zalk, D., et. al., Evaluating the Control Banding Nanotool: a qualitative risk assessment method for controlling nanoparticle exposures, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 11"1685-1704, June 2009

Occupational Medical Surveillance

Government Resources

• DOE
DOE N456.1, The Safe Handling of Unbound Engineered Nanoparticles, 1/5/09 external link icon
 DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers, Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H, Revision 3a – May 2008 external link icon
• NIOSH
1. Current Intelligence Bulletin 60: Interim Guidance for Medical Screening and Hazard Surveillance for Workers Potentially Exposed to Engineered Nanoparticles. Publication No. 2009-116 external link icon
2.  Nanomaterials and Worker Health: Medical Surveillance, Exposure Registries, and Epidemiologic Research, July 21–23, 2010, at the Keystone Resort and Conference Center in Keystone, Colorado.external link icon
Select slide presentations available at Mountain & Plains ERC external link icon
Presentations related specifically to some aspect of medical surveillance included:
-  Nasterlack, M., MD, BASF Corporation, Is there enough information currently to warrant specific medical screening of workers exposed to nanomaterials? external link icon
- Markowitz, S., MD, City University of New York
- Kosnett, M., MD, MPH, University of Colorado Denver and Colorado School of Public Health
- Lichty, P., MD, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
3. Schulte et. al., Options for Occupational Health Surveillance of Workers Potentially Exposed to Engineered Nanoparticles: State of the Science, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 5, May 2008.
4. Schulte et. al., Medical Surveillance, exposure registries, and epidemiologic research for workers exposed to nanomaterials, Toxicology 269, p. 128-135, 2010.

External Resources

 ASTM, E2535-07 Standard Guide for Handling Unbound Engineered Nanoscale Particles in Occupational Settings, November 07 external link icon
 ISO, Health and safety practices in occupational settings relevant to nanotechnologies. Document no. ISO/TR 12885, 2008 external link icon

Environmental Protection

Government Resources

• EPA:
o  National Center for Environmental Research - Nanotechnology external link icon
o  Nanotechnology White Paper, Feb 07 external link icon
o  Proceedings of the Interagency Workshop on the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, 5-7 September 07 external link icon
o  Draft Nanomaterial Research Strategy, 24 Jan 08 external link icon
o  National Center for Environmental Assessment external link icon, Nanomaterial Case Studies:
Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide (External Review Draft), July 2009 external link icon
Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (External Review Draft), August 2010 external link icon
o Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT)
Control of Nanoscale Materials under the Toxic Substances Control Act external link icon
o Significant New Use Rules
 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes; Significant New Use Rules, Final Rule, September 17, 2010 external link icon
• GAO:
o Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials Are Widely Used in Commerce, but EPA Faces Challenges in Regulating Risk, GAO-10-549 May 25, 2010 external link icon 

Life Cycle EHS Risk Management

Government Resources

• Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center/Air Force Research Laboratory
 Presentations from the 2nd USAF ASC/AFRL ESOH Nanomaterials Workshop, 3-5 November 2009 external link icon
 Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI) Report, Managing the Life Cycle Risks of Nanomaterials, July 2009external link icon
• Department of Defense
DoD Emerging Contaminants Integrated Product Team (EC-IPT) Nanomaterials Work Group external link icon
 Environmental, Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH) Risks from Engineered Nanomaterials, DoD Memorandum from Mr. John Young, Jr., Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (AT&L), 13 May 2008 external link icon

External Resources

Environmental Defense – DuPont Nano Risk Framework, June 2007 external link icon
• European Commission,
1. Directorate-General for Health & Consumers
1.  Nanotechnologies external link icon
2.  Scientific Hearing on Risk Assessment of Nanotechnologies external link icon
 ISO TC 229 Nanotechnologies external link icon (projects under development)
– ISO/DTR 13121 Nanotechnologies - Nanomaterial Risk Evaluation Framework
• Literature
Linkov, I. et. al., Multi-criteria decision analysis and environmental risk assessment for nanomaterials, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2007
Linkov, I. et. al., Nano Risk Governance: Current Developments and Future Perspectives, 6 Nanotechnology Law & Business, Summer 2009
Linkov, I. et. al.,  Emerging Methods and tools for environmental risk assessment, decision-making, and policy for nanomaterials: summary of NATO Advanced Research Workshop, J. Nanopart Res, 11:513-527, 2009 external link icon
Tervonen T. et. al.,  Risk-Based classification system of nanomaterials external link icon, J. Nanopart Res, 2008
Seager, T.P. and Linkov, I.,  Coupling Multicriteria Decision Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment for Nanomaterials, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2008 external link icon
Nanotech Regulatory Document Archive external link icon
 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials external link icon
– No. 21 - ENV/JM/MONO(2010)10 external link icon, Report of the Workshop on Risk Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials in a regulatory context, Sept. 2009, in Washington D.C., U.S.
Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Life Cycle Assessment external link icon
 Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) external link icon
-  Risk Assessment of Products of Nanotechnologies, adopted opinion of its 28th plenary on 19 January 2009 external link icon

Online Databases

Government Resources

 NIOSH, Nanoparticle Information Library external link icon
• National Institutes of Health
1. National Library of Medicine external link icon
- Hazardous Substances Data Bank
2. National Cancer Institute Cancer NanoLab (caNanoLab) Portal external link icon 

External Resources

International Council On Nanotechnology, Virtual EHS Journal and database external link icon
Nanowerk Nanomaterial Database external link icon
OECD, Database on Research into the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials external link icon
Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars – Inventories external link icon
– Health and Environmental Implications: an inventory of current research:
– Consumer Products
– US NanoMetro Map
– Agriculture and Food
– Medicine
– Silver Nanotechnology in commercial products

Environment, Safety, and Health Research

Government Resources

• Army Corps of Engineers (ACE), Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC).
 Environmental Laboratory (Engineered Nanomaterial Risk Assessment: Environmental Behavior and Ecotoxicological-Related Research) external link icon
• Environmental Protection Agency
1.  EPA, Draft Nanomaterial Research Strategy, 24 Jan 08 external link icon
2.  Research Projects external link icon
 NIOSH, Occupational-Related Research external link icon
1. NIOSH Publication No. 2010-105: Strategic Plan for NIOSH Nanotechnology Research and Guidance external link icon
2. NIOSH Publication No. 2010-104: Progress Toward Safe Nanotechnology in the Workplace, A Report from the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center external link icon
• National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)
 Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research, Feb 08 external link icon
 NNI Strategic Planning Stakeholder Workshop – Providing Critical Stakeholder Input to the 2010 NNI Strategic Plan, July 13-14, 2010 external link icon
 National Nanotechnology Initiative, Supplement to the President's 2011 Budget, February 2010 external link icon 

External Resources

National Academy of Sciences, Review of Federal Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related EHS Research, Dec 08 external link icon
 OECD, Database on Research into the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials external link icon
Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Health and Environmental Implications: an inventory of current research  external link icon

Websites

Government Resources

• DoD Emerging Contaminants Integrated Product Team (EC-IPT) Nanomaterials Work Group external link icon
Environmental Protection Agency: Nanotechnology external link icon
 Food and Drug Administration: Nanotechnology external link icon
National Cancer Institute Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer external link icon
Nanotechnology at NIOSH external link icon
National Institutes of Health – Hazardous Substances Data Bank external link icon
National Nanotechnology Initiative external link icon
National Institutes of Standards and Technology Nanotechnology Portal external link icon
Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Nanotechnology external link icon

External Resources

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, publications

external link icon  American Industrial Hygiene Association Nanotechnology Working Group

 338 - Deriving and Documenting Army Specific Occupational Exposure Levels - Time-Weighted Averages (OEL-TWAs)

 230 - Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Chemical Exposure Guidelines for Deployed Military Personnel

 

Ergonomics 

  144 - Guidelines for Controlling Health Hazards in Painting Operations

Hearing Conservation 

Laboratory

 Mold 

 44 - Procedures for Recording and Handling Noise Complaints (eCatalog order) 

 195A - Safety and Health Guidance for Mortuary Affairs Operations: Infectious Materials

Vision

external link icon  ASTM E56 Nanotechnologies external link icon British Standards Institution: Nanotechnology external link icon International Council on Nanotechnology

  
 International Organization for Standardization TC 229 Nanotechnologies external link icon
 NanoSAFE – Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials external link icon
Nanotech Regulatory Document Archive external link icon
 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials external link icon
 SAFE NANO external link icon
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies external link icon

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