Medical Safety

Medical Safety References

Last Updated: December 17, 2018
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​Federal Law and Regulations

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services External Link

CMS Waiver for OR Humidity Levels   External Link

Department of Transportation External Link

Environmental Protection Agency External Link

Food and Drug Administration External Link

Guidelines for Public Access Defibrillation Programs in Federal Facilities External Link

GSA Customer Guide to Real Property External Link

OSHA General Industry Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR)  External Link

Worker Safety in Hospitals External Link

Prudent Practices in the Laboratory External Link

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy and Security Rules External Link

United States Access BoardExternal Link

Department of Defense Directive External Link

4715.1E - Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) External Link

Department of Defense Instructions External Link

6050.05 - DoD Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) Program External Link

6055.01 - DoD Safety and Occupational Health (SOH) Program External Link

6055.05 - Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) External Link

6055.08 - Occupational Ionizing Radiation Protection Program External Link

6055.11 - Protecting Personnel from Electromagnetic Fields External Link

6055.12 - Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) External Link

6055.15 - DoD Laser Protection Program External Link

6055.17 – DoD Installation Emergency Management ProgramExternal Link

Department of Defense Manuals External Link

UFC 4-510-01 Design: Military Medical FacilitiesExternal Link

Army Regulations External Link

11-34 - The Army Respiratory Protection Program External Link

40-3 - Medical, Dental, and Veterinary Care External Link

40-5 - Preventive Medicine External Link

40-61 - Medical Logistics Policies External Link

40-68 - Clinical Quality Management External Link

190-51 - Security of Unclassified Army Property (Sensitive and Nonsensitive) External Link

200-1 - Environmental Protection and Enhancement External Link

385-10 - The Army Safety Program External Link

420-1 - Army Facilities Management External Link

600-63 - Army Health Promotion External Link

DA Pamphlets External Link

40-11 - Preventive Medicine External Link

40-21 - Ergonomics Program External Link

40-501 - Hearing Conservation Program External Link

40-503 - Industrial Hygiene Program External Link

40-506 - The Army Vision Conservation and Readiness Program External Link

385-10 - Army Safety Program External Link

385-24 - The Army Radiation Safety Program External Link

385-25 - Occupational Dosimetry and Dose Recording for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation External Link

385-69 - Safety Standards for Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories External Link

Army Techniques Publication (ATP)

ATP 5-19 Risk Management External Link

MEDCOM Regulations

40-35, Management of Regulated Medical Waste (AKO Users) External Link

385-2, Army Medical Command Safety Program (AKO Users) External Link

Technical Bulletins-Medical

245 - Warning Tag for Medical Oxygen Equipment (DD Form 1191) External Link

507 - Heat Stress Control and Heat Casualty Management External Link

508 - Prevention and Management of Cold-Weather Injuries External Link

510 - Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Occupational Exposure to Waste Anesthetic Gases External Link

515 - Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Guidance for the Management, Use and Disposal of Hazardous Drugs External Link

521 - Occupational and Environmental Health Management and Control of Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Medical Research X-Ray Systems and Facilities External Link

523 - Control of Hazards to Health from Microwave and Radio Frequency Radiation and Ultrasound External Link

524 - Control of Hazards to Health from Laser Radiation External Link

525 - Control of Hazards to Health from Ionizing Radiation Used by Army Medical Dept External Link

530 - Occupational and Environmental Health Food Sanitation External Link

561 - Pest Surveillance External Link

750-1 - Operating Guide for Medical Equipment Maintenance External Link

APHC Fact Sheets & Technical Information Papers (TIPs)

Biological Safety Cabinets: Certification External Link

Biological Safety Cabinets: Types External Link

Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Spills and Releases in Army Military Treatment Facilities External Link

Hand Drying at Medical Treatment Facilities External Link

Radio Frequency Identification External Link

TIP: Managing Confined Spaces in Army Healthcare Facilities External Link

TIP: PPE and Ebola Virus Disease External Link


TIP: An Industrial Hygiene Guide and Checklist for the Collection of Hazardous Drug Surface Wipe Samples

TIP: Procedures for Cleaning Up Hazardous Drug Spilcccls and Leaks External Link

TIP: Administrative Controls for Management of Hazardous Drugs External Link

TIP: Aerosolized Drugs

APHC Technical Guides

TG 195 Safety and Health Guidance for Mortuary Affairs Operations: Infectious Materials
and CBRN Handling (AKO access) External Link

TG 195A Safety and Health Guidance for Mortuary Affairs Operations: Infectious Materials External Link

Subjects Specific to the Environment of Care/Physical Environment

Guidance to help healthcare organizations implement strategies to prevent injuries and illnesses using a multi-component prevention plan.

ASSE: Body of Knowledge External Link

CDC: Workbook for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Sharps Injury Prevention Program External Link

FGI Design Guide for the Built Environment of Behavioral Health Facilities External Link

FDA Personal Protective Equipment for Infection Control External Link

IOM: Preventing Transmission of Pandemic Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Diseases: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Personnel Update 2010 External Link

MHS: Military Health SystemExternal Link

NAP: Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Work Environment of Nurses External Link

NAP: Safe Work in the 21st Century: Education and Training Needs for the Next Decade's Occupational Safety and Health Personnel External Link

NAP: To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System External Link

NAP: The Use and Effectiveness of Powered Air Purifying Respirators in Health Care: Workshop Summary External Link

NIOSH: Does It Really Work? How to Evaluate Safety and Health Changes in the Workplace External Link

NIOSH: Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals External Link

OSHA: Hospital Respiratory Protection Program Toolkit External Link

OSHA: Personal Protective Equipment External Link

TJC: Implementing Hospital Respiratory Protection Programs: Strategies from the Field External Link

TJC: Keeping Your Hospital Property Smoke-Free External Link

VHA: Patient Safety Center Safe Bariatric Patient Handling Toolkit External Link


Guidance to assist healthcare organizations in assessing the vulnerabilities of their facilities and implementing appropriate physical security measures.

IAEMSC Active Shooter Planning and response in a Healthcare Setting External Link

Mayo Clinic: Diversion of Drugs Within Health Care Facilities, a Multiple-Victim Crime: Patterns of Diversion, Scope, Consequences, Detection, and Prevention External Link

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children: For Healthcare Professionals: Guidelines on Prevention of and Response to Infant Abductions, 9th ed. and Self-Assessment External Link

NIOSH Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks External Link

NIOSH Violence: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals External Link

Omnicell Diversion: Your Guide to Identification and Prevention External Link

OSHA Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Health Care and Social Service Workers External Link

TJC: Preventing Violent and Criminal Events External Link

TJC: Security/Emergency Management Resources - Violence, Security, Active Shooter External Link

Hazardous Materials and Waste

Guidance to help healthcare organizations prevent occupational exposures to hazardous gases and vapors, radioactive materials and hazardous energy sources, hazardous drugs and chemicals, blood and other potentially infectious materials.

CDC Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition External Link

DLIS Hazardous Materials Information Resource System External Link

EPA Medical Waste Publications External Link

EPA Pharmaceuticals Standards and Guidelines External Link

NAP Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Updated Version External Link

NIOSH Control of Smoke from Laser/Electric Surgical Procedures External Link

NIOSH Personal Protective Equipment for Health Care Workers Who Work with Hazardous Drugs External Link

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards External Link

NIOSH Preventing Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings External Link

NIOSH Waste Anesthetic Gases - Occupational Hazards in Hospitals External Link

OSHA Best Practices for the Safe Use of Glutaraldehyde in Healthcare External Link

OSHA Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance External Link

OSHA Model Plans and Programs for the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens and Hazard Communications Standards External Link

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits - Annotated Tables External Link

Fire Safety

Guidance to assist healthcare organizations in protecting occupants from fire, smoke, and panic and maintaining fire protection systems, equipment, and means of egress.

FDA Preventing Surgical Fires External Link

ECRI Surgical Fire Prevention External Link

NFPA Health Care Interpretations Task Force (HITF) External Link

OSHA How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and Evacuations External Link

Medical Equipment

Guidance to help healthcare organizations manage medical equipment risks from equipment failure and biological contamination.

AACN Strategies for Managing Alarm Fatigue External Link

AAMI/ECRI: Executive Insights on Healthcare Technology Safety External Link

AHRQ: Multifaceted Initiative to Reduce "Alarm Fatigue" on Cardiac Unit Reduces Alarms and Increases Nurse and Patient Satisfaction External Link

ECRI Alarm Safety Resource Site External Link

FDA Hospital Bed System Dimensional and Assessment Guidance to Reduce Entrapment External Link

FDA Practice Hospital Bed Safety External Link


Guidance to help healthcare organizations manage risks from utilities system disruptions and biological contamination.

ASHRAE Guideline 12-2000 Legionellosis External Link

Guidelines for Control of Legionella in Ornamental Water Features External Link

CDC Legionella External Link

OSHA Control of Hazardous Energy Lockout/Tagout External Link

OSHA Controlling Electrical Hazards External Link

OSHA Hand and Power Tools External Link

OSHA Preventing Mold-Related Problems in the Indoor Workplace External Link

Emergency Management

Emergency Management is another chapter related to the Physical Environment.

Organizations need to plan to respond to the effects of potential emergencies.

Listed below is guidance to help healthcare organizations manage emergencies by assessing threats, developing a comprehensive emergency response plan, and evaluating the effectiveness of emergency response strategies.

AHRQ Hospital Evacuation Decision Guide External Link

AHRQ Hospital Assessment and Recovery Guide External Link

ATSDR Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents External Link

Hospital Incident Command System 2014 HICS Revision External Link

CDC Agents, Diseases, and Other Threats (A to Z) External Link

DOT 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook External Link

HHS: Incorporating Active Shooter Incident Planning into Healthcare Facility Emergency Operations Plan External Link

NIOSH Guidance on Emergency Responder Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Response to CBRN Terrorism Incidents External Link

NIOSH Protecting Emergency Responders, Volume 3 External Link

NIOSH Recommendations for the Selection and Use of Respirators and Protective Clothing for Protection Against Biological Agents External Link

OSHA Best Practices for Hospital-Based First Receivers of Victims from Mass Casualty Incidents Involving the Release of Hazardous Substances External Link

OSHA Best Practices for Protecting EMS Responders During Treatment and Transport of Victims of Hazardous Substance Releases External Link

OSHA Fire and Explosion Planning Matrix External Link

OSHA Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Guidance for Healthcare Workers and Healthcare Employers External Link

TJC Emergency Management Resources - Vulnerable Populations External Link

ACEP EMS and Disaster Preparedness External Link

CDC Planning Resources for Hospitals and Healthcare Systems External Link

Infection Control

The infection prevention and control chapter helps healthcare organizations reduce the number of health care-associated infections linked to failures in the environment of care.

Listed below is guidance to help healthcare organizations implement infection control measures to prevent the transmission of infectious agents.

CDC Vaccine Storage and Handling Toolkit External Link

CDC Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Healthcare Facilities External Link

CDC Guidelines for Preventing Transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis in Healthcare Settings External Link

CDC Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) External Link

EPA's Registered Sterilizers, Tuberculocides, and Antimicrobial Products Against Certain Human Public Health Bacteria and Viruses External Link

FDA FDA-Cleared Sterilants and High Level Disinfectants with General Claims for Processing Reusable Medical and Dental Devices - March 2015 External Link

NIOSH Environmental Control for Tuberculosis: Basic Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Guidelines for Healthcare Settings External Link

HLAC Accreditation Standards for Processing Reusable Textiles for Use in Healthcare Facilities External Link

Standards and Guidelines

Authoritative standards and guidelines are developed by technical or professional societies or by national and international standards-setting organizations.

Compliance is voluntary; however, many government regulators now accept adherence to authoritative standards and guidelines as sufficient for meeting their regulatory requirements especially in the absence of laws.

Listed below are recognized standards-producing organizations.

Standards and guidelines may be purchased through the individual organizations

ACGIH TLV®/BEI® GuidelinesExternal Link

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Standards External Link

American National Standards Institute External Link

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standards External Link

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation's Standards and Recommended Practices External Link

American Society of Mechanical Engineers External Link

American Society for Testing and Materials Standards External Link

ASHRAE Interpretations for Standard 170-2008 External Link

ASIS Online External Link

Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology Standards External Link

CDC Vaccine Storage and Handling Toolkit External Link

Compressed Gas Association's American National Standards External Link

ECRI Institute External Link

Facility Guidelines Institute: Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities External Link

FGI Resources External Link

Health Physics Society External Link

IES Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Standards External Link

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers External Link

International Association of Healthcare Security and Safety External Link

International Electrotechnical Commission External Link

Joint Commission Resources External Link

National Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards External Link

United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary (USP–NF) External Link

Underwriters Laboratory Standards for Safety External Link